There is no Free lunch in the corporate world, but a brutal circle of payments. A client cannot purchase “something for nothing,” and businesses are all about the circulation of payments. One owner pays for the services of his employees and the materials by vendors. The vendor makes that payment to another business entity, so on and so forth. Thus, the sweet round of economics is all paid up in a vicious ring.
Table of Contents
There are different types of payment instruments used by entrepreneurs, where some are incredibly modern ways like “cryptocurrency”. Since not all organizations are comfortable with this digital currency, we will be sharing old-school or rather classic payment instruments currently in practice. There are specific financial instruments, for example, letters of credit and bill of exchange, etc., and we will discuss those in detail.
The letter of credit
If we simply define the term, it is a document issued by a banking institution to a different bank. It is a documentary credit that is widely utilized in international trade to an exporter. The trustworthy bank provides a guarantee in order to pursue the trade business smoothly. LC assures an exporter that the buyer’s payment will be cleared on time and for the exact amount. If the seller finds out the payment is not made due to buyer’s inability, the bank will remain liable to clear the amount to the trader.
TT is a medium of foreign remittance, which pays the funds via telegraphic transfers. It is basically a bank transfer in the electronic form from buyer to the seller through a bank. It is a relatively old process used by traders and has changed into an open account method in many countries. A trader in Egypt, for instance, pays his local bank and they will send a fax to their foreign branch or affiliate to clear the payments on a mentioned date. The exchange rate is quite suitable in the T/T way.
Payments against documents
Also known as Cash against Documents CAD, This payment term involves the Exporter instructing the bank to hand over the necessary documents to the importer after dues are cleared. CAD is used when the buyer completely pays the attached bank draft or bill of exchange. This method is easier for both sides of the trade and less expensive than a letter of credit. Document against payment or DAP sees clear instructions to the bank about dispatching those documents only when the importer clears the whole amount.
Clean Foreign Bill of Exchange
A foreign bill of exchange is a standard payment method in the import and export industry when there is established trust between both parties. Usually, trading business involves repetitive business with the same buyer or seller, and there is no risk involved in the transaction. If both accept the creditworthiness of each other, the Exporter prepares this document and sends it to the commercial bank in the buyer’s territory. The relevant documents are also sent with the payment. The importer will ultimately withdraw this financial instrument with ease.
If the Chinese Yuan weakens relative to India Rupee (INR), import of Chinese toys in India becomes relatively cheaper and therefore adversely affects the sales of Indian toy manufacturer.
Many businesses are going global! The expansion of any enterprise has not entirely flourished without indulging in the export function. There could be many reasons for exporting your products, ranging from better prices & more significant margins to market niche & business share. Whatever your reasons are for the export business, you need to be prepared for the jittery wind along the way. It has high risks of transportation, demographics, cultures, stereotypes, laws, and lack of time management for every industry. It is imperative to manage those risks to grow your business through exports.
As far as the food industry is concerned, many developing nations largely depend on their food exports. With high dependence comes excellent preparation! They need to ensure food safety and quality, meaning their items should reach their buyers in the global economy as per their standards. Keeping the global supply chain intact and every country playing its part by maintaining food control measures can manage it. If it is a balanced fit between industries and the Government, then the risk factor is minimized.
Budgeting is an export-risk factor. It depends on foreign currencies that keep fluctuating. A company’s budget could see an incline or decline based on the rapid variation of forex rates. However, in reality, the currency fluctuations even impacts companies with no dealing in international markets. For instance, a domestic toy manufacturer, who is competing with traders importing toys from China, is also exposed to fluctuations in the prices of Chinese Yuan (CNY). If the Chinese Yuan weakens relative to India Rupee (INR), import of Chinese toys in India becomes relatively cheaper and therefore adversely affects the sales of Indian toy manufacturer.
The other types of risks involved with exports can be either related to payment, transportation, customs procedures, or insurance …
However, in reality, the currency fluctuations even impacts companies with no dealing in international markets. For instance, a domestic toy manufacturer, who is competing with traders importing toys from China, is also exposed to fluctuations in the prices of Chinese Yuan (CNY). If the Chinese Yuan weakens relative to India Rupee (INR), import of Chinese toys in India becomes relatively cheaper and therefore adversely affects the sales of Indian toy manufacturer.
If you export the product without clearing the debt first, there is the risk of non-payment. Especially when you are dealing with new clients with no prior credibility, it is best to receive cash in your account before supplying. In the case of a regular client, you may afford to take such small-scale risks based on previous experiences.
“What if your client refuses to pay you the amount before receiving the product?”
Credit sales constitute a significant risk involved in the export industry. If you shipped a container of grains, for instance, on a 20 days’ credit, and the party refuses to lift stock from the shipment yard due to any given circumstances. This interruption will delay the payments and disrupt your cycle of debts. There could also be a scenario where your client claims the delivered product is unsatisfactory; hence, the fee is not cleared in time. We can not emotionally or morally influence the buyer in export business, whether it is only the food industry or as a whole. However, if it was a local customer, we could set up a real meeting in an instance and resolve the issue.
What if your client refuses to pay you the amount before receiving the product? Many people in the trading business and particularly in the food industry use a Letter of Credit. This document is a financial instrument that is secure for both sides without any risk. The payment mechanism in the export business usually revolves around the Letter of Credit. We can manage this export risk efficiently by using this instrument.
There are many risk factors, but if one learns how to overcome them or manage them, rest is only a heavenly story. Generally, all industries face risks, and the food industry is no different. The only thing that matters the most is the management of those risks. You could manage them by avoiding credit, introducing a stable exchange policy, ensuring safer financial instruments, and maintaining the highest level of quality.